These are substances that alter the functioning of the brain and its processes. Do to this the brain is not able to function at its normal capacity. This can be a result of a drug being snorted, smoked, injected, ingested, or absorbed into the blood stream
“Uppers”, which is slang for drugs that are known as stimulants, are a group of psychoactive drugs that trigger the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the body. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are stimulants that are naturally produced in the human body. These hormones help increase heart output and glucose levels. Substances that are considered as stimulants include coffee, tobacco, diet pills, cocaine, amphetamines, betel nuts, ephedra, and khat. This category of drugs is the most popular and commonly used around the globe. The most consumed or used stimulants in the United States is caffeine and tobacco. This also holds to be true for Europe and other developing countries around the world. It is estimated, that in 2010 approximately 5.3 million Americans used cocaine and crack. Another 850,000 snorted, shot, ate, or smoked methamphetamines for nonmedical purposes.
“Downers”, another name for depressants, are drugs or substances that slow down the various processes in the brain that results in decreased heart rate, muscle strength, respiration, and other functions. These are also a subcategory of psychoactive drugs. This includes alcohol, opiates, muscle relaxants, and sedative hypnotics. Alcohol is considered to be the most consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Just in 2010, approximately 130,000 Americans died from alcohol abuse and consumption. Heroin today, accounts for 20% of all drug abuse in America. According to CDC, more than 8,200 people died in the United States from heroin overdose in 2013. Between the years of 2002 and 2013, the number of heroin-related deaths quadrupled.